Ambulatory blood pressures and central blood pressures are associated with cardiovascular morbidity in adolescent and young adult patients receiving chronic hemodialysis

Pediatr Nephrol. 2019 Jul;34(7):1261-1268. doi: 10.1007/s00467-019-04208-8. Epub 2019 Feb 18.


Background: Left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and arterial stiffness measured by pulse wave velocity (PWV) are independent predictors of cardiovascular (CV) mortality in adults receiving chronic dialysis. Hypertension strongly associates with elevated left ventricular mass index (LVMI) and PWV, with ambulatory blood pressure monitoring (ABPM), and central blood pressure (CBP) superior to office blood pressures (BP) in predicting CV morbidity. Few studies have described associations of office BP, ABPM, and CBP with LVMI and PWV in adolescent and young adult patients receiving hemodialysis (HD).

Methods: Cross-sectional study of 22 adolescents and young adults receiving chronic HD. Pre- and post-dialysis office BP and CBP using applanation tonometry were obtained. Twenty-four-hour ABPM was obtained midweek post-dialysis. Pre- and post-dialysis carotid-brachial PWV were obtained same day as BP measurements. Annual echocardiograms for standard care were reviewed for LVH.

Results: Pre-dialysis CBP index correlated with LVMI (r = 0.3, p = 0.04) and PWV (r = 0.48, p = 0.02). Hypertensive patients identified by ABPM had worse LVMI; daytime ABPM systolic BP index correlated with LVMI (r = 0.5, p = 0.02). Office BP was not associated with LVMI; only office diastolic BP was associated with PWV (r = 0.46, p = 0.02). There was no correlation of LVMI or PWV with bone health parameters, anemia, interdialytic weight gain, or residual renal function.

Conclusions: Ambulatory blood pressure monitoring is superior to casual office BP obtained at time of dialysis in delineating cardiovascular morbidity in adolescent and young adult HD patients. CBP is easily performed and correlates with LVMI and PWV in adolescent and young adult HD patients; however, large-scale normative data is needed.

Keywords: ABPM; Central blood pressure; Hemodialysis; LVH; Pediatric; Pulse wave velocity.

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Adult
  • Arterial Pressure*
  • Arteries / physiopathology
  • Blood Pressure Monitoring, Ambulatory*
  • Child
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / diagnosis*
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Hypertrophy, Left Ventricular / etiology*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / complications*
  • Kidney Failure, Chronic / therapy
  • Male
  • Pulse Wave Analysis
  • Renal Dialysis
  • Vascular Stiffness*
  • Young Adult