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. 2007 Oct;91(10):1345-1350.
doi: 10.1094/PDIS-91-10-1345.

Resistance to Boscalid Fungicide in Alternaria Alternata Isolates From Pistachio in California

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Resistance to Boscalid Fungicide in Alternaria Alternata Isolates From Pistachio in California

Herve F Avenot et al. Plant Dis. .

Abstract

Boscalid is a new carboxamide fungicide recently introduced in a mixture with pyraclostrobin in the product Pristine for the control of Alternaria late blight of pistachio. In all, 108 isolates of Alternaria alternata were collected from pistachio orchards with (59 isolates) and without (49 isolates) prior exposure to boscalid. The sensitivity to boscalid was determined in conidial germination assays. The majority of isolates from two orchards without a prior history of boscalid usage had effective fungicide concentration to inhibit 50% of spore germination (EC50) values ranging from 0.089 to 3.435 μg/ml, and the mean EC50 was 1.515 μg/ml. Out of 59 isolates collected from an orchard with a history of boscalid usage, 52 isolates had EC50 values ranging from 0.055 to 4.222 μg/ml, and the mean EC50 was 1.214 μg/ml. However, in vitro tests for conidial germination and mycelial growth also revealed that seven A. alternata isolates, originating from the orchard exposed to boscalid were highly resistant (EC50 > 100 μg/ml) to this fungicide. Furthermore, in vitro tests showed no significant differences between wild-type and boscalid-resistant mutants in some fitness parameters such as spore germination, hyphal growth, sporulation, or virulence on pistachio leaves. Experiments on the stability of the boscalid-resistant phenotype showed no reduction of the resistance after the mutants were grown on fungicide-free medium. Preventative applications of a commercial formulation of boscalid (Endura) at a concentration which is effective against naturally sensitive isolates failed to control disease caused by the boscalid-resistant isolates in laboratory tests. To our knowledge, this is first report of field isolates of fungi resistant to boscalid.

Keywords: boscalid resistance; carboxamides; predicted fitness.

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