Myelopoiesis ensures the steady state of the myeloid cell compartment. Technological advances in fate mapping and genetic engineering, as well as the advent of single cell RNA-sequencing, have highlighted the heterogeneity of the hematopoietic system and revealed new concepts in myeloid cell ontogeny. These technologies are also shedding light on mechanisms of myelopoiesis at homeostasis and at different phases of infection and inflammation, illustrating important feedback loops between affected tissues and the bone marrow. We review these findings here and revisit principles in myelopoiesis in light of the evolving understanding of myeloid cell ontogeny and heterogeneity. We argue for the importance of system-wide evaluation of changes in myelopoiesis and discuss how even after the resolution of inflammation, long-lasting alterations in myelopoiesis may play a role in innate immune memory or trained immunity.
Copyright © 2019 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.