Thyroid disorders are common diseases, both in Brazil and worldwide. The Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil) is a prospective cohort study that investigates cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, and associated factors, including non-classical cardiovascular risk factors such as thyroid function. Thyroid function was classified according to thyrotropin stimulating hormone (TSH), free thyroxine (FT4), and use of medication to treat thyroid disorders, after excluding participants who reported use of any medication that could alter the results of the TSH and FT4 tests. All analyses included in this review are cross-sectional using baseline data (2008 to 2010). The results showed an association of subclinical thyroid disorders with biomarkers of subclinical atherosclerosis, measured by carotid intima-media thickness and coronary artery calcium, insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome, and some psychiatric disorders. No association was found with the biomarker of inflammation high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, or changes in pulse wave velocity or heart rate variability.