Annu Rev Plant Biol. 2019 Apr 29:70:321-346. doi: 10.1146/annurev-arplant-050718-095919. Epub 2019 Feb 20.


When exposed to warmer, nonstressful average temperatures, some plant organs grow and develop at a faster rate without affecting their final dimensions. Other plant organs show specific changes in morphology or development in a response termed thermomorphogenesis. Selected coding and noncoding RNA, chromatin features, alternative splicing variants, and signaling proteins change their abundance, localization, and/or intrinsic activity to mediate thermomorphogenesis. Temperature, light, and circadian clock cues are integrated to impinge on the level or signaling of hormones such as auxin, brassinosteroids, and gibberellins. The light receptor phytochrome B (phyB) is a temperature sensor, and the phyB-PHYTOCHROME-INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4)-auxin module is only one thread in a complex network that governs temperature sensitivity. Thermomorphogenesis offers an avenue to search for climate-smart plants to sustain crop and pasture productivity in the context of global climate change.

Keywords: COP1; ELF3; PIF4; auxin; chromatin remodeling; phytochrome B.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Circadian Clocks*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant
  • Light
  • Phytochrome B
  • Plant Physiological Phenomena
  • Plant Proteins*
  • Plants


  • Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors
  • Plant Proteins
  • Phytochrome B