Objective:: This study aimed to conduct an up-to-date systematic review of the literature to evaluate the effects of exercise on fatigue, anxiety, depression, physical activity, and quality of life (QOL) in patients with end-stage renal disease.
Data sources:: We searched PubMed (October 2018), Embase (from 1966 to October 2018), Web of Science (from 1900 to October 2018), The Cochrane Library (October 2018), and references of papers.
Methods:: This study includes randomized controlled trials that analyzed the combined effects of exercise intervention on patients with end-stage renal disease. Two reviewers independently screened the retrieved records, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias for inclusion in the study. The effects of exercise intervention were conducted in the meta-analysis using RevMan 5.3 software.
Results:: A total of 614 participants were included in 13 randomized controlled studies. The study revealed that exercise can improve fatigue, anxiety, depression, physical activity, and QOL. The effect value results were as follows: (1) fatigue, -0.97 (95% confidence interval (CI) -1.32 to -0.62, P < 0.00001); (2) anxiety, -0.78 (95% CI -1.17 to -0.39, P < 0.0001); (3) depression, -0.85 (95% CI -1.13 to -0.56, P < 0.00001) (4) physical activity, 38.15 (95% CI 21.20 to 55.10, P < 0.0001); (5) QOL, the physical component of the 36-item Short-Form Health Survey (SF-36), 4.73 (95% CI 1.92 to 7.54, P = 0.0010); and (6) the mental component of the SF-36, 3.42 (95% CI 0.27 to 6.56, P = 0.03).
Conclusion:: Exercise intervention is more effective in fatigue, anxiety, depression, physical activity, and QOL. However, large-scale randomized controlled trials are needed to confirm the appropriate types of exercise and optimal time for patients with end-stage renal disease.
Keywords: End-stage renal disease; anxiety; depression; exercise; fatigue; quality of life.