Hyperuricemia is recognized as a lifestyle-related disease and the prevalence is increasing in many parts of the world. Excessive intake of purines increases serum uric acid concentration and is thought to be one factor causative of hyperuricemia. Therefore, it is thought that prevention of hyperuricemia by dietary control may be very important. This is an article of our basic research regarding the role of dietary fiber in the suppression of hyperuricemia induced by dietary purines in rats; in addition, clinical research suggesting the possibility that dietary fiber intake has a beneficial effect on the prevention or suppression of hyperuricemia in humans is discussed. Our own studies reveal that the test dietary fiber significantly suppresses the elevation of serum uric acid concentration induced by dietary RNA (12.3-46.2%), adenosine-5'-monophosphate (9.5-23.2%), adenosine (10.7-20.4%), or adenine (16.3-38.9%) and suppresses experimental hyperuricemia in rats. The mechanism is presumed to be mediated by suppression of the digestion and/or absorption of dietary purines by dietary fiber. In clinical studies, intake of dietary fiber decreases serum uric acid concentrations. Reports of recent epidemiological studies indicate that higher levels of hyperuricemia increase the prevalence of its comorbidities (e.g., chronic kidney disease, obesity, hypertension, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease) and dietary fiber intake is associated with significantly lower risk for hyperuricemia and its comorbidities. We wish to emphasize the importance of recognizing the validity of increased dietary fiber intake as a preventive or suppressive method for hyperuricemia and its comorbidities.
Keywords: Mediterranean diet; adenine; comorbidities; dietary fiber; glucose; hyperuricemia; kidney disease; purine; urea; uric acid.