Matrix Metalloproteinases in COPD and atherosclerosis with emphasis on the effects of smoking

PLoS One. 2019 Feb 21;14(2):e0211987. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0211987. eCollection 2019.

Abstract

Background: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMP´s) are known biomarkers of atherosclerosis. MMP´s are also involved in the pathophysiological processes underlying chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Cigarette smoking plays an important role in both disease states and is also known to affect the concentration and activity of MMP´s systemically. Unfortunately, the epidemiological data concerning the value of MMP´s as biomarkers of COPD and atherosclerosis with special regards to smoking habits are limited.

Methods: 450 middle-aged subjects with records of smoking habits and tobacco consumption were examined with comprehensive spirometry, carotid ultrasound examination and biomarker analysis of MMP-1, -3, -7, -10 and -12. Due to missing data 33 subjects were excluded.

Results: The remaining 417 participants were divided into 4 different groups. Group I (n = 157, no plaque and no COPD), group II (n = 136, plaque but no COPD), group III (n = 43, COPD but no plaque) and group IV (n = 81, plaque and COPD). Serum levels of MMP-1,-7,-10-12 were significantly influenced by smoking, and MMP-1, -3, -7 and-12 were elevated in subjects with COPD and carotid plaque. This remained statistically significant for MMP-1 and-12 after adjusting for traditional risk factors.

Conclusion: COPD and concomitant plaque in the carotid artery were associated with elevated levels of MMP-1 and -MMP-12 even when adjusting for risk factors. Further studies are needed to elucidate if these two MMP´s could be useful as biomarkers in a clinical setting. Smoking was associated with increased serum levels of MMP´s (except for MMP-3) and should be taken into account when interpreting serum MMP results.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Atherosclerosis / blood
  • Atherosclerosis / diagnostic imaging
  • Atherosclerosis / metabolism*
  • Biomarkers / blood
  • Carotid Arteries / diagnostic imaging
  • Cross-Sectional Studies
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1 / blood*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 12 / blood*
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases / blood
  • Middle Aged
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / blood
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / diagnostic imaging
  • Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive / metabolism*
  • Smoking / adverse effects
  • Smoking / blood*
  • Spirometry
  • Up-Regulation

Substances

  • Biomarkers
  • Matrix Metalloproteinases
  • MMP12 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 12
  • MMP1 protein, human
  • Matrix Metalloproteinase 1

Grant support

Financial support for this study was received from Lund University, Skåne University Hospital and Region Skåne. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.