Hemorrhagic burden in poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage: a volumetric analysis of different bleeding distributions

Acta Neurochir (Wien). 2019 Apr;161(4):791-797. doi: 10.1007/s00701-019-03846-z. Epub 2019 Feb 21.


Background: Volumetric assessment of aneurysmal bleeding has been evaluated in few studies and emerged as a promising outcome predictor. There is a lack of studies evaluating its impact in the poor-grade population.

Methods: Retrospective review of 63 consecutive poor-grade aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) patients, defined as grade IV and V according to the World Federation of Neurological Surgeons (WFNS) classifications. Global intracranial bleeding volume was calculated with its subarachnoid, intracerebral (ICH), and intraventricular (IVH) portions by means of analytical software. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed in order to identify independent predictors of outcome. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) 0-2 and mortality as mRS 6. The cutoff values of bleeding volumes were derived by receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis.

Results: Mean follow-up was of 12.5 (± 1.5) months. Thirty (47.7%) patients achieved good outcome, whereas 19 (30.2) patients out of 63 died. Global intracranial bleeding resulted as an independent predictor of good outcome (cutoff 24 mL). Furthermore, ICH relative percentage of global volume (10% of total) and pure SAH (64% of total) emerged respectively as independent predictors of worsened and improved outcome. Global bleeding volume (cutoff 51 mL) along with global cerebral edema showed to independently predict mortality in the examined poor-grade aSAH population.

Conclusions: Volumetric assessment of aneurysmal bleeding has the potential for identifying cutoff values that independently predict outcome. Further insights into the relative importance of different bleeding volumes may be implicated in better tailoring the management of this dismal aSAH population.

Keywords: Cerebral aneurysm; Poor grade; Prognosis; Subarachnoid hemorrhage; Volumetric.

MeSH terms

  • Brain / diagnostic imaging*
  • Brain / pathology
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prognosis
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / diagnostic imaging*
  • Subarachnoid Hemorrhage / pathology
  • Tomography, X-Ray Computed
  • Treatment Outcome