Background: Previous studies suggested that genetic status affects the clinical course of arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia (ARVC/D) patients. The aim of this study was to compare the outcome of desmoglein-2 (DSG2) mutation carriers to those who carry the plakophilin-2 (PKP2) mutation, the most common ARVC/D-associated gene.
Methods and results: Consecutive ARVC/D patients carrying a pathogenic mutation in PKP2 or DSG2 were selected from a national ARVC/D registry. The cumulative freedom from sustained ventricular arrhythmia and cardiac transplantation/death from heart failure (HF) during follow-up was assessed, compared between PKP2 and DSG2, and predictors for ventricular arrhythmia and HF events determined. Overall, 118 patients from 78 families were included: 27 (23%) carried a DSG2 mutation and 91 (77%) a PKP2 mutation. There were no significant differences between DSG2 and PKP2 mutation carriers concerning gender, proband status, age at diagnosis, T-wave inversion, or right ventricular dysfunction at baseline. DSG2 patients displayed more frequent epsilon wave (37% vs. 17%, P = 0.048) and left ventricular dysfunction at diagnosis (54% vs. 10%, P < 0.001). During a median follow-up of 5.6 years (2.5-16), DSG2 and PKP2 mutation carriers displayed a similar risk of sustained ventricular arrhythmia (log-rank P = 0.20), but DSG2 mutation carriers were at higher risk of transplantation/HF-related death (log-rank P < 0.001). The presence of a DSG2 mutation vs. PKP2 mutation was a predictor of transplantation/HF-related death in univariate Cox analysis (P = 0.0005).
Conclusions: In this multicentre cohort, DSG2 mutation carriers were found to be at high risk of end-stage HF compared to PKP2 mutation carriers, supporting careful haemodynamic monitoring of these patients. The benefit of early HF treatment needs to be assessed in DSG2 carriers.
Keywords: Arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy/dysplasia; Cardiac transplantation; Desmoglein-2; Heart failure; Plakophilin-2; Ventricular arrhythmia.
© 2019 The Authors. European Journal of Heart Failure © 2019 European Society of Cardiology.