Classification scheme for ductal morphology in cyanotic patients with ductal dependent pulmonary blood flow and association with outcomes of patent ductus arteriosus stenting

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv. 2019 Apr 1;93(5):933-943. doi: 10.1002/ccd.28125. Epub 2019 Feb 21.


Objectives: To devise a classification scheme for ductal morphology in patients with ductal dependent pulmonary blood flow (PBF) that can be used to assess outcomes.

Background: The impact of ductal morphology on outcomes following patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) stenting is not well defined.

Methods: Patients <1 year of age who underwent PDA stenting for ductal dependent PBF at the four centers comprising the Congenital Catheterization Research Collaborative (CCRC) were included. A classification scheme for PDA morphology was devised based on a tortuosity index (TI)-Type I (straight), Type II (one turn), and Type III (multiple turns). A subtype classification was used based upon the ductal origin.

Results: One hundred and five patients underwent PDA stenting. TI was Type I in 58, Type II in 24, and Type III in 23 PDAs, respectively. There was a significant association between ductal origin and vascular access site (p < 0.001). Procedure times and need for >1 stent did not differ based on TI. Greater TI was associated with pulmonary artery (PA) jailing (p = 0.003). Twelve (11.4%) patients underwent unplanned reintervention, more commonly with greater TI (p = 0.022) and PA jailing (p < 0.001). At the time of subsequent surgical repair/palliative staging, PA arterioplasty was performed in 32 patients, more commonly when a PA was jailed (p = 0.048). PA jailing did not affect PA size at follow up.

Conclusions: The proposed qualitative and quantitative PDA morphology classification scheme may be helpful in anticipating outcomes in patients with ductal dependent PBF undergoing PDA stenting.

Keywords: classification scheme; congenital heart disease; cyanotic; ductal dependent pulmonary blood flow; morphology; patent ductus arteriosus; stent.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Catheterization / adverse effects
  • Cardiac Catheterization / instrumentation*
  • Coronary Angiography*
  • Cyanosis / etiology*
  • Ductus Arteriosus / diagnostic imaging*
  • Ductus Arteriosus / physiopathology
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / complications
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / diagnostic imaging
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / physiopathology
  • Ductus Arteriosus, Patent / therapy*
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Infant, Newborn
  • Male
  • Predictive Value of Tests
  • Pulmonary Circulation*
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Stents*
  • Time Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • United States