Materials and structures used in meniscus repair and regeneration: a review

Biomedicine (Taipei). 2019 Mar;9(1):2. doi: 10.1051/bmdcn/2019090102. Epub 2019 Feb 22.


Meniscus is a vital functional unit in knee joint. It acts as a lubricating structure, a nutrient transporting structure, as well as shock absorber during jumping, twisting and running and offers stability within the knee joint. It helps in load distribution, in bearing the tensile hoop stresses and balancing by providing a cushion effect between hard surfaces of two bones. Meniscus may be injured in sports, dancing, accident or any over stressed condition. Any meniscal lesion can lead to a gradual development of osteoarthritis or erosion of bone contact surface due to disturbed load and contact stress distribution caused by injury/pain. Once injured, the possibilities of self-repair are rare in avascular region of meniscus, due to lack of blood supply in avascular region. Meniscus has vascular and avascular regions in structure. Majority of the meniscus parts turn avascular with increase in age. Purpose of this review is to highlight advances in meniscus repair with special focus on tissue engineering using textile/fiber based scaffolds, as well as the recent technical advances in scaffolds for meniscus recon- struction/ regeneration treatment.