Objectives: The purpose of this study is to evaluate the predictive value of the amount of fibroglandular tissue (FGT) and background parenchymal enhancement (BPE), measured at baseline on breast MRI, for breast cancer development and risk of false-positive findings in women at increased risk for breast cancer.
Methods: Negative baseline MRI scans of 1533 women participating in a screening program for women at increased risk for breast cancer between January 1, 2003, and January 1, 2014, were selected. Automated tools based on deep learning were used to obtain quantitative measures of FGT and BPE. Logistic regression using forward selection was used to assess relationships between FGT, BPE, cancer detection, false-positive recall, and false-positive biopsy.
Results: Sixty cancers were detected in follow-up. FGT was only associated to short-term cancer risk; BPE was not associated with cancer risk. High FGT and BPE did lead to more false-positive recalls at baseline (OR 1.259, p = 0.050, and OR 1.475, p = 0.003) and to more frequent false-positive biopsies at baseline (OR 1.315, p = 0.049, and OR 1.807, p = 0.002), but were not predictive for false-positive findings in subsequent screening rounds.
Conclusions: FGT and BPE, measured on baseline MRI, are not predictive for overall breast cancer development in women at increased risk. High FGT and BPE lead to more false-positive findings at baseline.
Key points: • Amount of fibroglandular tissue is only predictive for short-term breast cancer risk in women at increased risk. • Background parenchymal enhancement measured on baseline MRI is not predictive for breast cancer development in women at increased risk. • High amount of fibroglandular tissue and background parenchymal enhancement lead to more false-positive findings at baseline MRI.
Keywords: Breast; Breast neoplasms; Magnetic resonance imaging; Risk factors.