Simultaneous determination of twelve dyes in meat products: Development and validation of an analytical method based on HPLC-UV-diode array detection

Food Chem. 2019 Jul 1:285:1-9. doi: 10.1016/j.foodchem.2019.01.133. Epub 2019 Jan 30.


The use of food dyes in meat is subject to regulations, due to food safety concerns. A reliable method for the determination of 12 food dyes (Amaranth, Ponceau 4R, Carmine, Ponceau SX, Ponceau 3R, Allura Red AC, Carmoisine, Erythrosine, Sudan I, Sudan II, Sudan III and Sudan IV) in meat products using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to UV-diode array detection was developed, optimized and fully validated. The extraction was accomplished using acetonitrile, methanol, water, ammonia, 50:40:9:1 (v/v/v/v) as the solvent, and an ultrasonic bath. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a C18 RP column and samples eluted with a gradient acetate-acetonitrile mobile phase. Good analytical performance was obtained, in terms of selectivity, sensitivity, accuracy and ruggedness. Both method precision (CV% range: 6.2%-18.0%) and recovery (range: 86.4%-105.0%) complied with Decision 657/2002/EC, suggesting the procedure could be applied successfully for analyses of meat products in the European Union.

Keywords: Allura Red AC (PubChem CID: 5360805); Amaranth (PubChem CID: 5359521); Carmine (PubChem CID: 14950); Carmoisine (PubChem CID: 6321394); Erythrosine (PubChem CID: 12961638); Food colorings; Food dyes; Food safety; Fresh meat preparations; HPLC; Meat products; Ponceau 3R (PubChem CID: 5359885); Ponceau 4R (PubChem CID: 9570119); Ponceau SX (PubChem CID: 9595288); Sudan I (PubChem CID: 5858445); Sudan II (PubChem CID: 5809936); UV-diode array detection; Validation.

MeSH terms

  • Azo Compounds / analysis
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid / methods*
  • Coloring Agents / analysis*
  • Coloring Agents / chemistry
  • Coloring Agents / isolation & purification
  • Liquid-Liquid Extraction
  • Meat Products / analysis*
  • Solvents
  • Sonication
  • Spectrophotometry, Ultraviolet


  • Azo Compounds
  • Coloring Agents
  • Solvents
  • Allura Red AC Dye
  • sudan red
  • ponceau 3R