The convergence of nanoparticles and stem cell therapy holds great promise for the study, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. Researchers aim to harness the power of nanoparticles to regulate cellular microenvironment, improve the efficiency of cell and drug delivery to the brain, and enhance the survival of stem cell transplants. Understanding the various properties of different nanoparticles is key to applying them to clinical therapies; the many distinct types of nanoparticles offer unique capacities for medical imaging, diagnosis, and treatment of neurodegeneration disorders. In this review we introduce the biology of Alzheimer's, Parkinson's Disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and discuss the potentials and shortcomings of metal, silica, lipid-based, polymeric, and hydrogel nanoparticles for diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative disorders. We then provide an overview of current strategies in stem cell therapies and how they can be combined with nanotechnology to improve clinical outcomes.
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