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. 2019 May;38(5):829-842.
doi: 10.1007/s10096-019-03515-0. Epub 2019 Feb 23.

Nucleic Acid Testing and Molecular Characterization of HIV Infections


Nucleic Acid Testing and Molecular Characterization of HIV Infections

Junpeng Zhao et al. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. .


Significant advances have been made in the molecular assays used for the detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), which are crucial in preventing HIV transmission and monitoring disease progression. Molecular assays for HIV diagnosis have now reached a high degree of specificity, sensitivity and reproducibility, and have less operator involvement to minimize risk of contamination. Furthermore, analyses have been developed for the characterization of host gene polymorphisms and host responses to better identify and monitor HIV-1 infections in the clinic. Currently, molecular technologies including HIV quantitative and qualitative assays are mainly based on the polymerase chain reaction (PCR), transcription-mediated amplification (TMA), nucleic acid sequence-based amplification (NASBA), and branched chain (b) DNA methods and widely used for HIV detection and characterization, such as blood screening, point-of-care testing (POCT), pediatric diagnosis, acute HIV infection (AHI), HIV drug resistance testing, antiretroviral (AR) susceptibility testing, host genome polymorphism testing, and host response analysis. This review summarizes the development and the potential utility of molecular assays used to detect and characterize HIV infections.

Keywords: Characterization; Human immunodeficiency virus; Nucleic acid testing; Qualitative nucleic acid assays; Quantitative nucleic assays.

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