Albuminuria is associated with the progression of chronic kidney disease and the occurrence of cardiovascular events in patients with and without diabetes. The evolution of albuminuria appears to be associated with patient's prognosis. How exactly microalbuminuria is linked to cardiovascular risk remains unclear. This association is probably explained by endothelial dysfunction or chronic low-grade inflammation. Albuminuria/creatininuria ratio allows reduction of potential errors in urine collection. In France, the recommendations for the monitoring of albuminuria depend on the cause of albuminuria. An increase in urinary albumin excretion could signify the need for an intensive multifactorial intervention strategy and albuminuria is a relevant biological marker to monitor therapeutic effectiveness, since a reduction of albuminuria in patients, irrespective of their diabetic status, predicts reduction of cardiovascular risk.
Keywords: cardiovascular risk; chronic kidney disease; diabetes; microalbuminuria; urinary excretion of albumin.