Labelled regulatory elements are pervasive features of the macrophage genome and are dynamically utilized by classical and alternative polarization signals

Nucleic Acids Res. 2019 Apr 8;47(6):2778-2792. doi: 10.1093/nar/gkz118.


The concept of tissue-specific gene expression posits that lineage-determining transcription factors (LDTFs) determine the open chromatin profile of a cell via collaborative binding, providing molecular beacons to signal-dependent transcription factors (SDTFs). However, the guiding principles of LDTF binding, chromatin accessibility and enhancer activity have not yet been systematically evaluated. We sought to study these features of the macrophage genome by the combination of experimental (ChIP-seq, ATAC-seq and GRO-seq) and computational approaches. We show that Random Forest and Support Vector Regression machine learning methods can accurately predict chromatin accessibility using the binding patterns of the LDTF PU.1 and four other key TFs of macrophages (IRF8, JUNB, CEBPA and RUNX1). Any of these TFs alone were not sufficient to predict open chromatin, indicating that TF binding is widespread at closed or weakly opened chromatin regions. Analysis of the PU.1 cistrome revealed that two-thirds of PU.1 binding occurs at low accessible chromatin. We termed these sites labelled regulatory elements (LREs), which may represent a dormant state of a future enhancer and contribute to macrophage cellular plasticity. Collectively, our work demonstrates the existence of LREs occupied by various key TFs, regulating specific gene expression programs triggered by divergent macrophage polarizing stimuli.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Cells, Cultured
  • Chromatin Assembly and Disassembly / physiology*
  • Computational Biology
  • Gene Expression Regulation / physiology
  • Genome
  • Machine Learning
  • Macrophages / metabolism*
  • Mice
  • Mice, Inbred C57BL
  • Protein Binding / physiology
  • Regulatory Sequences, Nucleic Acid*
  • Staining and Labeling / methods
  • Transcription Factors / metabolism*
  • Transcriptional Activation / physiology


  • Transcription Factors