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, 25 (1), 1963-1973

Delivery of Magnetic Micro/Nanoparticles and Magnetic-Based Drug/Cargo Into Arterial Flow for Targeted Therapy

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Delivery of Magnetic Micro/Nanoparticles and Magnetic-Based Drug/Cargo Into Arterial Flow for Targeted Therapy

Mohammad K D Manshadi et al. Drug Deliv.

Abstract

Magnetic drug targeting (MDT) and magnetic-based drug/cargo delivery are emerging treatment methods which attracting the attention of many researchers for curing different cancers and artery diseases such as atherosclerosis. Herein, computational studies are accomplished by utilizing magnetic approaches for cancer and artery atherosclerosis drug delivery, including nanomagnetic drug delivery and magnetic-based drug/cargo delivery. For the first time, the four-layer structural model of the artery tissue and its porosity parameters are modeled in this study which enables the interaction of particles with the tissue walls in blood flow. The effects of parameters, including magnetic field strength (MFS), magnet size, particle size, the initial position of particles, and the relative magnetic permeability of particles, on the efficacy of MDT through the artery walls are characterized. The magnetic particle penetration into artery layers and fibrous cap (the covering layer over the inflamed part of the artery) is further simulated. The MDT in healthy and diseased arteries demonstrates that some of the particles stuck in these tissues due to the collision of particles or blood flow deviation in the vicinity of the inflamed part of the artery. Therefore the geometry of artery and porosity of its layers should be considered to show the real interaction of particles with the artery walls. Also, the results show that increasing the particles/drug/cargo size and MFS leads to more particles/drug/cargo retention within the tissue. The present work provides insights into the decisive factors in arterial MDT with an obvious impact on locoregional cancer treatment, tissue engineering, and regenerative medicine.

Keywords: Magnetic drug targeting; artery; cancer therapy; computational fluid dynamics; drug/cargo delivery; numerical simulation.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
The permanent magnet and its magnetic field. (A) The employed magnet with a length of L = 6 mm and a width of W = 2 mm. (B) The effect of permanent magnet on particles retention. (C) The effects of magnetic field strength (MFS) and particle diameter on the efficacy of particle trapping.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
The effect of magnet size on the efficacy of particles trapping. (A) By(T) around magnets of different size. (i) L = 3 mm, W = 1 mm; (ii) L = 6 mm, W = 2 mm; (iii) L = 9 mm, W = 3 mm; and (iv) L = 12 mm, W = 4 mm. (B) Total number of trapped particles for different magnet sizes.
Figure 3.
Figure 3.
The effects of particles permeability and initial particle distribution on particles trapping. (A) The effect of magnetic permeability on particle retention. (B) The effect of magnetic permeability on particle trapping for 500 nm particles. (C) The effect of the initial distribution of particles on particle trapping.
Figure 4.
Figure 4.
Particle position (x, y) moving through the artery with different diameters and initial positions at the inlet in the presence of external magnetic field. (A) The trajectories of single particles with 18 µm and 50 µm diameters through the artery (see Supplementary Movie 1). (B) Releasing a single particle with different diameters near the upper wall. (C) Releasing a single particle with different diameters at the middle of the artery. (D) Releasing a single particle with different diameters near the lower wall.
Figure 5.
Figure 5.
MDT through inflamed arteries. (A) The schematic illustration of the artery inflammation. (B) Blood flow through the inflamed artery. (C) The total number of drug particles passed the fibrous cap as a function of particle size. (D) The effect of magnetic field on a cluster of 2000-nm particles for artery inflammation MDT. (E) Particle retention in fibrous cap tissue in the absence of the magnetic field. (F) Comparing the behavior of 20 and 50 µm drugs/cargoes exposed to external magnetic field. (G) Trajectories of drugs/cargoes with different size in the presence of external magnetic field during their passage through the artery narrowing and interaction with the fibrous cap (Also see Supplementary Movie 2).

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Grant support

This work was supported by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research of Canada (NSERC), Canada Research Chair, and Alberta Innovates Bio Solutions.

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