Nutritional programming of the thermogenic and fuel oxidation capacity of white adipose tissue (WAT) through dietary interventions in early life is a potential strategy to enhance future metabolic health. We previously showed that mild neonatal supplementations with the polyphenol resveratrol (RSV) and the vitamin B3 form nicotinamide riboside (NR) have sex-dependent, long-term effects on the thermogenic/oxidative phenotype of WAT of mice in adulthood, enhancing this phenotype selectively in male animals. Here, we tested the hypothesis that these dietary interventions may impact the commitment of progenitor cells resident in the developing WAT toward brown-like (beige) adipogenesis. NMRI mice received orally from postnatal day 2-20 (P2-20) a mild dose of RSV or NR, in independent experiments; control littermates received the vehicle. Sex-separated primary cultures were established at P35 from the stromovascular fraction of inguinal WAT (iWAT) and of brown adipose tissue (BAT). Expression of genes related to thermogenesis and oxidative metabolism was assessed in the differentiated cultures, and in vivo in the iWAT depot of young (P35) animals. Neonatal RSV and NR treatments had little impact on the animals' growth during early postnatal life and the expression of thermogenesis- and oxidative metabolism-related genes in the iWAT depot of young mice. However, the expression of brown/beige adipocyte marker genes was upregulated in the iWAT primary cultures from RSV supplemented and NR supplemented male mice, and downregulated in those from supplemented female mice, as compared to cultures derived from sex-matched control littermates. RSV supplementation had similar sex-dependent effects on the expression of thermogenesis-related genes in the BAT primary cultures. A link between the sex-dependent short-term effects of neonatal RSV and NR supplementations on primary iWAT preadipocyte differentiation observed herein and their previously reported sex-dependent long-term effects on the thermogenic/oxidative capacity of adult iWAT is suggested. The results provide proof-of-concept that the fate of preadipocytes resident in WAT of young animals toward the beige adipogenesis transcriptional program can be modulated by specific food bioactives/micronutrients received in early postnatal life.
Keywords: adipose tissue; beigeing; browning; food bioactives; metabolic programming; primary culture; sex differences.