Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 10 (2), 995-1012
eCollection

Choroidal Vasculature Imaging With Laser Doppler Holography

Affiliations

Choroidal Vasculature Imaging With Laser Doppler Holography

Léo Puyo et al. Biomed Opt Express.

Abstract

The choroid is a highly vascularized tissue supplying the retinal pigment epithelium and photoreceptors. Its implication in retinal diseases is gaining increasing interest. However, investigating the anatomy and flow of the choroid remains challenging. Here we show that laser Doppler holography provides high-contrast imaging of choroidal vessels in humans, with a spatial resolution comparable to state-of-the-art indocyanine green angiography and optical coherence tomography. Additionally, laser Doppler holography contributes to sort out choroidal arteries and veins by using a power Doppler spectral analysis. We thus demonstrate the potential of laser Doppler holography to improve our understanding of the anatomy and flow of the choroidal vascular network.

Conflict of interest statement

The authors declare that there are no conflicts of interest related to this article.

Figures

Fig. 1
Fig. 1
Laser Doppler holography optical setup. L1, L2 and L3 are converging lenses. PBS: Polarizing Beam-Splitter. BS: Beam-Splitter. The light source is a single wavelength laser diode (SWL-7513-H-P, Newport). The Doppler broadened light backscattered by the retina and choroid is combined with the reference field and interferograms are recorded on the CMOS camera (Ametek - Phantom V2511) running at 60 kHz.
Fig. 2
Fig. 2
Angiographic images of the optic nerve head (ONH) with different instruments. (a) LDH reveals the retinal vasculature and choroidal arteries (arrows) originating from paraoptic SPCAs. (b) A late ICG-A (Heidelberg - Spectralis) reveals the retinalvessels. (c) and (d): OCT-A image of the retinal layer and OCT image of the choroid without the choriocapillaris (Optovue, Avanti with AngioVue), respectively.
Fig. 3
Fig. 3
LDH, SLO and ICG-A in the same eye. (a) 5 × 5 power Doppler images calculated over 530 kHz are stitched to produce a panorama on which retinal and choroidal vessels can be observed. The white circle indicates the fovea; the white arrows mark temporal distal SPCAs; the yellow lines shows the location of the B-scans presented in Fig. 4 and the yellow arrows mark the position of the deep choroidal arteries identified in Fig. 4(c). Finally, the red square indicates the location of the images in Fig. 6. (b) SLO (Heidelberg - Spectralis) image of the retina. (c) Late ICG angiogram (Heidelberg - Spectralis) image showing retinal and choroidal vessels (mostly veins).
Fig. 4
Fig. 4
Structural OCT images of the same eye as in Fig. 3. (a) and (b): en-face SS-OCT images (Zeiss - Plex Elite 9000) showing the deep choroid and the sclera, respectively. The arrows indicate choroidal arteries in (a) and SPCAs in (b). (c-f): SD-OCT B-scans (Heidelberg - Spectralis). (c) Cross-section showing the position of four choroidal arteries in the choroid (arrows). (d) A choroidal artery makes a U-turn to approach Bruch’s membrane. (e-f) The entry points of SPCAs visible with LDH are also revealed with OCT.
Fig. 5
Fig. 5
Circulation of the ICG in the fundus vasculature. (a) Choroidal arteries and cilioretinal arteries are revealed by the contrast agent. (b) The contrast agent has reached the retinal arteries, the choroidal veins, and the retinal veins whereas choroidal arteries cannot be observed anymore. See Visualization 1 for the injection movie.
Fig. 6
Fig. 6
Power Doppler spectral images and ICG-A. (a) Power Doppler image where the DPSD is integrated over 2.56 kHz which reveals vessels with smaller flows. (b) Power Doppler image integrated over 1030 kHz revealing vessels with larger flows. (c) Composite color image of (a) and (b) encoded in the cyan and red channels, respectively. (d) ICG-A in the same region. (e) Power spectral density spatially averaged over the regions indicated in (c). See Visualization 2 for the power Doppler spectral movie.
Fig. 7
Fig. 7
Power Doppler spectral panoramas calculated using the frequency ranges (a) 2.56 kHz, (b) 610 kHz, 1030 kHz. (d) Composite color panorama of (a) and (c) encoded in the cyan and red channels, respectively.
Fig. 8
Fig. 8
Power Doppler spectral panoramas and ICG-A. (a) Low frequency (2.56 kHz) power Doppler panorama which reveals small flows. (b) High frequency (1030 kHz) power Doppler panorama revealing vessels with larger flows. (c) Composite color panorama of (a) and (b), encoded in the cyan and red channels, respectively. (d) ICG angiogram of the same region. See Visualization 3 for a power Doppler spectral movie in one of the area.
Fig. 9
Fig. 9
Vortex vein imaged with ICG-A and LDH (a) ICG angiogram; the vortex vein is located at about 45 degrees of eccentricity; the fovea is indicated by the white circle and the rectangular box indicates the area covered by the power Doppler image (b) Power Doppler image integrated over the frequency range 1030 kHz. The arrow marks a choroidal artery visible with a bright contrast with LDH, and a darker contrast with ICG.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 1 PubMed Central articles

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback