Skip to main page content
Access keys NCBI Homepage MyNCBI Homepage Main Content Main Navigation
, 156 (8), 2266-2280

Lactobacilli Degrade Wheat Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors to Reduce Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Immunogenic Wheat Proteins

Affiliations

Lactobacilli Degrade Wheat Amylase Trypsin Inhibitors to Reduce Intestinal Dysfunction Induced by Immunogenic Wheat Proteins

Alberto Caminero et al. Gastroenterology.

Abstract

Background & aims: Wheat-related disorders, a spectrum of conditions induced by the ingestion of gluten-containing cereals, have been increasing in prevalence. Patients with celiac disease have gluten-specific immune responses, but the contribution of non-gluten proteins to symptoms in patients with celiac disease or other wheat-related disorders is controversial.

Methods: C57BL/6 (control), Myd88-/-, Ticam1-/-, and Il15-/- mice were placed on diets that lacked wheat or gluten, with or without wheat amylase trypsin inhibitors (ATIs), for 1 week. Small intestine tissues were collected and intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes (IELs) were measured; we also investigated gut permeability and intestinal transit. Control mice fed ATIs for 1 week were gavaged daily with Lactobacillus strains that had high or low ATI-degrading capacity. Nonobese diabetic/DQ8 mice were sensitized to gluten and fed an ATI diet, a gluten-containing diet or a diet with ATIs and gluten for 2 weeks. Mice were also treated with Lactobacillus strains that had high or low ATI-degrading capacity. Intestinal tissues were collected and IELs, gene expression, gut permeability and intestinal microbiota profiles were measured.

Results: In intestinal tissues from control mice, ATIs induced an innate immune response by activation of Toll-like receptor 4 signaling to MD2 and CD14, and caused barrier dysfunction in the absence of mucosal damage. Administration of ATIs to gluten-sensitized mice expressing HLA-DQ8 increased intestinal inflammation in response to gluten in the diet. We found ATIs to be degraded by Lactobacillus, which reduced the inflammatory effects of ATIs.

Conclusions: ATIs mediate wheat-induced intestinal dysfunction in wild-type mice and exacerbate inflammation to gluten in susceptible mice. Microbiome-modulating strategies, such as administration of bacteria with ATI-degrading capacity, may be effective in patients with wheat-sensitive disorders.

Keywords: Bacterial Metabolism; Food Allergy; HLA; Microbiome.

Similar articles

See all similar articles

Cited by 8 PubMed Central articles

See all "Cited by" articles

Publication types

MeSH terms

LinkOut - more resources

Feedback