Background: Mycotic aortoiliac aneurysms in neonates are rare. Surgical treatment has traditionally been the standard of care, but recent case reports have suggested that endovascular management of mycotic iliac aneurysms may also be safe and effective. In this case, we describe successful management of a mycotic aortoiliac aneurysm in a neonate with exploratory laparotomy and ligation of the left common iliac artery.
Methods: A full-term infant boy of uncomplicated delivery was transferred to our institution on day 2 of life after a barium enema concerning for small left colon syndrome. An umbilical artery catheter had been placed for monitoring but was removed before transfer. During his hospital course, he developed left leg edema and fever. He was found to have a mycotic aneurysm of the left common and internal iliac arteries, causing common iliac venous compression. A repeat ultrasound revealed the aneurysm measured a maximum of 12 mm in diameter and 26 mm in length.
Results: Treatment was delayed until the patient was clinically stable. He was monitored with serial ultrasounds, which showed no significant increase in aneurysmal size. A review of the literature supported the perception the aneurysm posed an impending risk to the patient. On day 16 of life, the neonate underwent ligation and excision of the left common iliac artery aneurysm.
Conclusion: Our experience found ligation of the common iliac artery to be safe and effective, establishing that surgical reconstruction is not required.
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