Herpes Simplex Encephalitis (HSE) is one of the commonest viral encephalitis and its recurrence is being increasingly reported were HSE relapse rate came up to 5%. Both herpes simplex virus (HSV) types can lead to encephalitis and it was established that HSV-1 is capable of nervous system invasion, latency, and recurrence. The recurrence of HSE used to be attributed to immunological compromise, but reports show many cases have no obvious immune system impairment. Further investigations revealed genetic predispositions to HSV infection that would explain the host vulnerability to its recurrence. In this review, we discuss the gene mutations that may predispose to recurrent HSE and the importance of early diagnosis and treatment.