Hypertension and renal impairment in patients with cystinuria: findings from a specialist cystinuria centre

Urolithiasis. 2019 Aug;47(4):357-363. doi: 10.1007/s00240-019-01110-8. Epub 2019 Feb 25.


Higher blood pressures (mean systolic difference 16.8 mmHg) when compared to matched individuals are already reported in patients with calcium urolithiasis. We present the prevalence of hypertension and renal impairment in patients with cystinuria from our specialist single centre. We analysed our prospective database of adult patients with cystinuria who attend our cystinuria service. This included details of the medical and operative management of their disease. Descriptive statistics were used to analyse and present the data. 120 patients were included with a median age of 40 (19-76) years, 66 were male (55%) and 54 were female (45%). 54/120 patients (45%) were taking medications to prevent stone formation. 78% (94/120) patients reported having undergone one or more stone-related procedure. 59% (55/94) of these having required at least one PCNL or open procedure during their lifetime. Prevalence of hypertension was 50.8% (61/120), and double in males compared to females (62.1% vs. 37.0%, P = 0.0063). Mean baseline creatinine was 88.2 (49-153) µmol/l and eGFR was 77.6 (32-127) ml/min/1.73 m2. When categorized by CKD stage, only 24.6% (27% vs. 21%, M vs. F) patients had normal renal function (being an eGFR > 89 ml/min/1.73 m2). 57.6% patients were CKD stage 2 and 17.8% CKD stage 3. Females had a slightly greater incidence of renal impairment. All patients who have previously undergone a nephrectomy (n = 10) or have a poorly functioning kidney (n = 19) have renal impairment (CKD stage 2 or 3). Incidence of hypertension in patients with cystinuria is 51%, with a male preponderance. Only 25% of patients with cystinuria have normal renal function. This highlights the long-term cardiovascular and renal risks that the metabolic effects of cystinuria pose, in addition to the challenges of managing recurrent urolithiasis in a young population.

Keywords: Chronic kidney disease; Cystinuria; Hypertension; Renal impairment; Urolithiasis.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Aged
  • Cystinuria / complications*
  • Female
  • Glomerular Filtration Rate
  • Humans
  • Hypertension / epidemiology*
  • Hypertension / etiology
  • Incidence
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Prevalence
  • Prospective Studies
  • Recurrence
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / epidemiology*
  • Renal Insufficiency, Chronic / etiology
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Sex Factors
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Urolithiasis / epidemiology*
  • Urolithiasis / etiology
  • Urolithiasis / therapy
  • Young Adult