Vitamin E consumption and the risk of bladder cancer

Int J Vitam Nutr Res. 2019 Sep;89(3-4):168-175. doi: 10.1024/0300-9831/a000553. Epub 2019 Feb 26.


Background: Vitamin E has anti-cancer properties, which was demonstrated mainly due to its antioxidant effect. Several epidemiological studies have investigated the association between vitamin E consumption and the risk of bladder cancer. However, the results were inconsistent. The meta-analysis study aimed to evaluate the association of vitamin E consumption and the risk of bladder cancer.

Methods: We conducted a systematic literature search in the electronic databases, which included MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library till 1 January 2016. The pooled relative risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated depending on the heterogeneity among studies. Subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis were also performed. Publication bias was assessed using Begg's test and Egger's test.

Results: A total of 11 prospective studies (3 randomized clinical trials and 8 cohort studies) including 575601 participants were identified to be eligible for our present meta-analysis. The pooled RRs with 95% CI for highest versus lowest vitamin E consumption was 0.89 (0.78-1.00). An inverse linear association between vitamin E consumption and bladder cancer risk was detected in the dose response analysis. The results were also stable in the subgroup analysis and sensitivity analysis. Meanwhile, no obvious publication bias was observed.

Conclusions: Our study indicates that vitamin E consumption was inversely associated with the risk of bladder cancer.

Keywords: bladder cancer; meta-analysis; vitamin E.

Publication types

  • Meta-Analysis

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Odds Ratio
  • Prospective Studies
  • Urinary Bladder Neoplasms*
  • Vitamin E*


  • Vitamin E