Purpose of review: The aim of this paper was to overview the current literature in order to establish the available treatment options for the neurological manifestations of gluten-related disorders (serologically confirmed gluten sensitivity and coeliac disease).
Recent findings: A range of debilitating neurological manifestations is increasingly being recognized in patients with gluten sensitivity with and without enteropathy even in the absence of gastrointestinal symptoms. Ataxia is the commonest neurological manifestation, followed by peripheral neuropathy. Epilepsy, headache, encephalopathy, various movement disorders, cognitive impairment, and muscle disorders have also been linked to gluten sensitivity and coeliac disease and are discussed in this review. Strict gluten-free diet is an effective first-line treatment of the neurological manifestations of gluten-related disorders. Very few patients will require additional immunosuppressive treatment usually in the form of mycophenolate.
Keywords: Ataxia; Coeliac disease; Gluten sensitivity; Gluten-free diet; Neurological manifestations; Neuropathy.