A patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) nude-mouse model precisely identifies effective and ineffective therapies for recurrent leiomyosarcoma

Pharmacol Res. 2019 Apr:142:169-175. doi: 10.1016/j.phrs.2019.02.021. Epub 2019 Feb 23.


Leiomyosarcoma is a rare and recalcitrant disease. Doxorubicin (DOX) is usually considered first-line treatment for this disease, but frequently is ineffective. In order to individualize therapy for this and other cancers, we have developed the patient-derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX) mouse model. In the present study, we implanted a recurrent leiomyosarcoma from a resected tumor from the patient's thigh into the femoral muscle of nude mice. The following drugs were tested on the leiomyosarcoma PDOX model: DOX, the combination of gemcitabine (GEM) and docetaxel (DOC), trabectedin (TRA), temozolomide (TEM), pazopanib (PAZ) and olaratumab (OLA). Of these agents GEM/DOC, TRA and TEM were highly effective in the leiomyosarcoma PDOX model, the other agents, including first-line therapy DOX, were ineffective. Thus the leiomyosarcoma PDOX model could precisely distinguish effective and ineffective drugs, demonstrating the potential of the PDOX model for leiomyosarcoma treatment.

Keywords: Chemotherapy; Leiomyosarcoma; Patient derived orthotopic xenograft (PDOX); Precision medicine.

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antineoplastic Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Antineoplastic Combined Chemotherapy Protocols / therapeutic use
  • Disease Models, Animal*
  • Humans
  • Leiomyosarcoma / drug therapy*
  • Mice, Nude
  • Muscle Neoplasms / drug therapy*
  • Neoplasm Recurrence, Local / drug therapy*
  • Treatment Outcome
  • Xenograft Model Antitumor Assays


  • Antineoplastic Agents