Redefining vaccination coverage and timeliness measures using electronic immunization registry data in low- and middle-income countries

Vaccine. 2019 Mar 22;37(13):1859-1867. doi: 10.1016/j.vaccine.2019.02.017. Epub 2019 Feb 23.


Vaccine coverage is routinely used as a performance indicator for immunization programs both at local and global levels. For many national immunization programs, there are challenges with accurately estimating vaccination coverage based on available data sources, however an increasing number of low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have begun implementing electronic immunization registries to replace health facilities' paper-based tools and aggregate reporting systems. These systems allow for more efficient capture and use of routinely reported individual-level data that can be used to calculate dose-specific and cohort vaccination coverage, replacing the commonly used aggregate routine health information system data. With these individual-level data immunization programs have the opportunity to redefine performance measures to enhance programmatic decision-making at all levels of the health system. In this commentary, we discuss how measures for assessing vaccination status and program performance can be redefined and recalculated using these data when generated at the health facility level and the implications of the use and availability of electronic individual-level data.

Keywords: Electronic immunization registry; Immunization; Individual-level data; Measures; Routine health information system; Vaccine.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Developing Countries*
  • Electronic Health Records*
  • Humans
  • Immunization Programs*
  • Program Evaluation
  • Public Health Surveillance
  • Registries
  • Vaccination
  • Vaccination Coverage*
  • Vaccines / administration & dosage
  • Vaccines / immunology


  • Vaccines