Systemic Sclerosis Pathogenesis and Emerging Therapies, beyond the Fibroblast

Biomed Res Int. 2019 Jan 23;2019:4569826. doi: 10.1155/2019/4569826. eCollection 2019.


Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is a complex rheumatologic autoimmune disease in which inflammation, fibrosis, and vasculopathy share several pathogenic pathways that lead to skin and internal organ damage. Recent findings regarding the participation and interaction of the innate and acquired immune system have led to a better understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease and to the identification of new therapeutic targets, many of which have been tested in preclinical and clinical trials with varying results. In this manuscript, we review the state of the art of the pathogenesis of this disease and discuss the main therapeutic targets related to each pathogenic mechanism that have been discovered so far.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Autoimmune Diseases / pathology
  • Autoimmune Diseases / therapy*
  • Fibroblasts / pathology
  • Fibrosis / pathology
  • Fibrosis / therapy*
  • Humans
  • Inflammation / pathology
  • Inflammation / therapy*
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / pathology
  • Scleroderma, Systemic / therapy*
  • Skin / pathology