Transthyretin amyloidosis (ATTR) is characterized by the deposit of mutant or wild-type transthyretin that forms amyloid fibrils, which are extracellularly deposited within tissues and organs. Clinical manifestations of familial amyloid polyneuropathy vary according to the mutation, age at onset and geographical location. This study aimed to describe baseline disease characteristics of Brazilian patients with transthyretin familial amyloid polyneuropathy (ATTR-FAP) enrolled in the Transthyretin Amyloidosis Outcome Survey (THAOS).
Methods: The THAOS is an international, noninterventional, longitudinal, observational, web-based registry designed to characterize ATTR. The outcome measures included demographics (age at symptom onset, gender, time from onset of symptoms to diagnosis, family history), genotype, and clinical characteristics (presence of amyloid deposit, frequency of misdiagnosis, presenting symptomatology). The analysis was conducted in a dataset from Brazilian patients (from November 2008 to January 2016).
Results: One hundred and sixty participants (52.5% male) were included in the analysis. The majority of participants (90.6%) reported a positive family history of ATTR-FAP Median age at symptom onset was 32.5 years. Val30Met mutation was found in 91.9%. Misdiagnosis was observed in 26.6% of symptomatic patients. Over one-third (35.3%) of the misdiagnosed patients experienced a delay of more than one year before receiving a correct diagnosis. At presentation, 79.7% of the patients had motor, 87.5% sensory and 93.8% autonomic symptoms.
Conclusion: ATTR-FAP in Brazil starts early, has a strong family history and the majority has Val30Met mutation. Misdiagnosis is common and the most common presentation is of a sensorimotor and autonomic neuropathy.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00628745.