Context: Long-term data on enzyme replacement treatment of hypophosphatasia (HPP) are limited.
Objective: To evaluate efficacy and safety of asfotase alfa in patients aged ≤5 years with HPP followed for up to 6 years.
Design: Phase 2 open-label study (July 2010 to September 2016).
Setting: Twenty-two sites; 12 countries.
Participants: Sixty-nine patients [median (range) age: 16.0 (0.02 to 72) months] with severe HPP and sign/symptom onset before age 6 months.
Intervention: Asfotase alfa 2 mg/kg three times/week or 1 mg/kg six times/week subcutaneously.
Main outcome measures: Primary efficacy measure: Radiographic Global Impression of Change (RGI-C) score [-3 (severe worsening) to +3 (complete/near-complete healing)]. Additional outcome measures: respiratory status, growth, and safety. Post hoc analysis: characteristics of radiographic responders vs nonresponders at Year 1 (RGI-C: ≥+2 vs <+2).
Results: During median (minimum, maximum) 2.3 (0.02, 5.8) years of treatment, RGI-C scores improved significantly at Month 6 [+2.0 (-1.7, +3.0)], Year 1 [+2.0 (-2.3, +3.0)], and Last Assessment [+2.3 (-2.7, +3.0); P < 0.0001 all]. Of 24 patients requiring respiratory support at Baseline, 11 (46%) no longer needed support. Height/weight z scores generally increased. Nine patients died (13%). All patients experienced at least one adverse event; pyrexia was most common. Compared with responders [n = 50 (72%)], nonresponders [n = 19 (28%)] had more severe disease at Baseline and a higher rate of neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) at Last Assessment.
Conclusions: Most infants/young children given asfotase alfa showed early radiographic and clinical improvement sustained up to 6 years; radiographic nonresponders had more severe disease and more frequent NAbs at Last Assessment.
Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01176266.
Copyright © 2019 Endocrine Society.