Visible light positioning (VLP), using LED luminaires as beacons, is a promising solution to the growing demand for accurate indoor positioning. In this paper, we introduce a two-stage receiver that has been specifically designed for VLP. This receiver exploits the advantages of two different VLP receiver types: photodiodes and imaging sensors. In this new receiver design a quadrant angular diversity aperture (QADA) receiver is combined with an off-the-shelf camera to form a robust new receiver called QADA-plus. Results are presented for QADA that show the impact of noise and luminaire geometry on angle of arrival estimation accuracy and positioning accuracy. Detailed discussions highlight other potential sources of error for the QADA receiver and explain how the two-stage QADA-plus can overcome these issues.
Keywords: QADA; QADA-plus; angle of arrival; indoor positioning; quadrant photodiode; visible light positioning.