Obesity: global epidemiology and pathogenesis

Nat Rev Endocrinol. 2019 May;15(5):288-298. doi: 10.1038/s41574-019-0176-8.


The prevalence of obesity has increased worldwide in the past ~50 years, reaching pandemic levels. Obesity represents a major health challenge because it substantially increases the risk of diseases such as type 2 diabetes mellitus, fatty liver disease, hypertension, myocardial infarction, stroke, dementia, osteoarthritis, obstructive sleep apnoea and several cancers, thereby contributing to a decline in both quality of life and life expectancy. Obesity is also associated with unemployment, social disadvantages and reduced socio-economic productivity, thus increasingly creating an economic burden. Thus far, obesity prevention and treatment strategies - both at the individual and population level - have not been successful in the long term. Lifestyle and behavioural interventions aimed at reducing calorie intake and increasing energy expenditure have limited effectiveness because complex and persistent hormonal, metabolic and neurochemical adaptations defend against weight loss and promote weight regain. Reducing the obesity burden requires approaches that combine individual interventions with changes in the environment and society. Therefore, a better understanding of the remarkable regional differences in obesity prevalence and trends might help to identify societal causes of obesity and provide guidance on which are the most promising intervention strategies.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Energy Intake / physiology
  • Energy Metabolism / physiology
  • Global Health*
  • Humans
  • Life Style*
  • Obesity / diagnosis
  • Obesity / epidemiology*
  • Obesity / metabolism
  • Sedentary Behavior*
  • World Health Organization