Comparison of Normal Saline, Ringer's Lactate, and Sodium Bicarbonate for Prevention of Contrast-induced Nephropathy in Patients With Coronary Angiography: A Randomized Double-blind Clinical Trial

Indian J Nephrol. Jan-Feb 2019;29(1):22-27. doi: 10.4103/ijn.IJN_48_17.


Contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN) is one the most important renal complications following contrast injection in percutaneous coronary intervention. We compared the protective effect of normal saline (NLS), Ringer's lactate (RL), and sodium bicarbonate (Bi). In this study, patients with coronary angiography indication were divided into three groups by simple randomization method: NLS, RL, and Bi solution groups. Creatinine (Cr) alterations, glomerular filtration rate, and urine pH were evaluated prior and after the procedure. Data were analyzed with SPSS and P value less than 0.05 was taken as significant. In this study, 300 patients [150 men (50%), mean age 59.1 ± 10.6 years] were studied. The CIN incidence overall was 10% (30 patients): 8.3% (8 patients) in NLS; 16.5% (17 patients) in RL; and 5% (5 patients) in Bi group. It was significantly different among three groups (P = 0.018), and CIN incidence was significantly lower in Bi vs. RL group (P = 0.012). Baseline Cr clearance was higher in patients who developed CIN (78.4 ± 26.0 vs. 69.8 ± 21.6 mL/dL, P = 0.044). Urine pH after trial in CIN group was lower than the patients without CIN (5.5 ± 1.4 vs. 6.3 ± 1.8 mL/dL, P = 0.024). Higher urine pH and its change during study were seen in Bi group (P < 0.05). Cr at the initiation of study and the use of RL vs. Bi may be prognostic factors in CIN progression (P < 0.002). Sodium barcarbonate as fluid had more protective effect than NSL or RL on prevention of CIN in patients undergoing coronary angiography. The risk factors for CIN in our study were higher baseline serum Cr and use of RL as hydration fluid.

Keywords: Contrast-induced nephropathy; Ringer's lactate; coronary angiography; sodium bicarbonate.