Ginseng is one of the main representatives of traditional Chinese medicine and presents a wide range of pharmacological actions. Ginsenosides are the main class of active compounds found in ginseng. They demonstrate unique biological activity and medicinal value, namely anti-tumour, anti‑inflammatory and antioxidant properties, as well as anti-apoptotic properties. Increasing levels of stress in life are responsible for the increased incidence of nervous system diseases. Neurological diseases create a huge burden on the lives and health of individuals. In recent years, studies have indicated that ginsenosides play a pronounced positive role in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases. Nevertheless, research is still at an early stage of development, and the complex mechanisms of action involved remain largely unknown. This review aimed to shed light into what is currently known about the mechanisms of action of ginsenosides in relation to Alzheimer's disease. Scientific material and theoretical bases for the treatment of nervous system diseases with purified Panax ginseng extracts are also discussed.