Sleep and Pathological Wakefulness at the Time of Liberation from Mechanical Ventilation (SLEEWE). A Prospective Multicenter Physiological Study

Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2019 May 1;199(9):1106-1115. doi: 10.1164/rccm.201811-2119OC.


Rationale: Abnormal patterns of sleep and wakefulness exist in mechanically ventilated patients. Objectives: In this study (SLEEWE [Effect of Sleep Disruption on the Outcome of Weaning from Mechanical Ventilation]), we aimed to investigate polysomnographic indexes as well as a continuous index for evaluating sleep depth, the odds ratio product (ORP), to determine whether abnormal sleep or wakefulness is associated with the outcome of spontaneous breathing trials (SBTs). Methods: Mechanically ventilated patients from three sites were enrolled if an SBT was planned the following day. EEG was recorded using a portable sleep diagnostic device 15 hours before the SBT. The ORP was calculated from the power of four EEG frequency bands relative to each other, ranging from full wakefulness (2.5) to deep sleep (0). The correlation between the right and left hemispheres' ORP (R/L ORP) was calculated. Measurements and Main Results: Among 44 patients enrolled, 37 had technically adequate signals: 11 (30%) passed the SBT and were extubated, 8 (21%) passed the SBT but were not deemed to be clinically ready for extubation, and 18 (49%) failed the SBT. Pathological wakefulness or atypical sleep were highly prevalent, but the distribution of classical sleep stages was similar between groups. The mean ORP and the proportion of time in which the ORP was >2.2 were higher in extubated patients compared with the other groups (P < 0.05). R/L ORP was significantly lower in patients who failed the SBT, and the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of R/L ORP to predict failure was 0.91 (95% confidence interval, 0.75-0.98). Conclusions: Patients who pass an SBT and are extubated reach higher levels of wakefulness as indicated by the ORP, suggesting abnormal wakefulness in others. The hemispheric ORP correlation is much poorer in patients who fail an SBT.

Keywords: delirium; extubation; mechanical ventilation; sedation; weaning.

Publication types

  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Electroencephalography
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Polysomnography
  • Prospective Studies
  • Respiration, Artificial* / adverse effects
  • Sleep / physiology*
  • Ventilator Weaning*
  • Wakefulness / physiology*