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Review
. 2019 May;95(5):1041-1052.
doi: 10.1016/j.kint.2018.10.042. Epub 2019 Feb 26.

The (Pro)renin Receptor: An Emerging Player in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

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Free PMC article
Review

The (Pro)renin Receptor: An Emerging Player in Hypertension and Metabolic Syndrome

Nirupama Ramkumar et al. Kidney Int. .
Free PMC article

Abstract

The (pro)renin receptor (PRR) is a multifunctional protein that is expressed in multiple organs. Binding of prorenin/renin to the PRR activates angiotensin II-dependent and angiotensin II-independent pathways. The PRR is also involved in autophagy and Wnt/ß catenin signaling, functions that are not contingent on prorenin binding. Emerging evidence suggests that the PRR plays an important role in blood pressure regulation and glucose and lipid metabolism. Herein, we review PRR function in health and disease, with particular emphasis on hypertension and the metabolic syndrome.

Keywords: (pro)renin receptor; hypertension; insulin resistance; obesity.

Figures

Figure 1.
Figure 1.
Basic biology of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR). (A) Simplified schematic of the PRR protein; (B) Prorenin/renin dependent PRR function; and (C) Prorenin/renin independent PRR function. Binding of the prorenin to the full length or sPRR induces non-proteolytic activation of prorenin to cleave angiotensinogen while binding of renin to full length or sPRR increases catalytic efficiency. Independent of Ang-II, binding of prorenin/renin to the PRR activates intra-cellular signaling pathways. AGT – angiotensinogen; Ang-I – angiotensin-I; Ang-II – angiotensin-II; PRR – (pro)renin receptor; sPRR – soluble (pro)renin receptor; p38MAPK – mitogen activated prorenin kinase; ERK1/2 – extracellular signal-regulated kinase; PI3K – phosphoinositide 3-kinase; PLZF – promyelocytic leukemia zinc finger; Wnt/ß catenin.
Figure 2.
Figure 2.
Organ specific functions of the (pro)renin receptor (PRR).VSMC – vascular smooth muscle cells.

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