Changes in the balance between glutamate (Glu) release and uptake may stimulate synaptic reorganization and even synapse loss. In the case of neurodegeneration, a mismatch between astroglial Glu uptake and presynaptic Glu release could be detected if both parameters were assessed independently and at a single-synapse level. This has now become possible due to a new imaging assay with the genetically encoded ultrafast Glu sensor iGlu u We report findings from individual corticostriatal synapses in acute slices prepared from mice of either sex that were >1 year of age. Contrasting patterns of short-term plasticity and a size criterion identified two classes of terminals, presumably corresponding to the previously defined IT (intratelencephalic) and PT (pyramidal tract) synapses. The latter exhibited a higher degree of frequency potentiation/residual Glu accumulation and were selected for our first iGlu u single-synapse study in Q175 mice, a model of Huntington's disease (HD). In HD mice, the decay time constant of the perisynaptic Glu concentration (TauD), as an indicator of uptake, and the peak iGlu u amplitude, as an indicator of release, were prolonged and reduced, respectively. Treatment of WT preparations with the astrocytic Glu uptake blocker TFB-TBOA (100 nm) mimicked the TauD changes in homozygotes. Considering the largest TauD values encountered in WT, ∼40% of PT synapses tested in Q175 heterozygotes can be classified as dysfunctional. Moreover, HD but not WT synapses exhibited a positive correlation between TauD and the peak amplitude of iGlu u Finally, EAAT2 (excitatory amino acid transport protein 2) immunoreactivity was reduced next to corticostriatal terminals. Thus, astrocytic Glu transport remains a promising target for therapeutic intervention.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Alterations in astrocytic Glu uptake can play a role in synaptic plasticity and neurodegeneration. Until now, the sensitivity of synaptic responses to pharmacological transport block and the resulting activation of NMDA receptors were regarded as reliable evidence for a mismatch between synaptic uptake and release. But the latter parameters are interdependent. Using a new genetically encoded sensor to monitor extracellular glutamate concentration ([Glu]) at individual corticostriatal synapses, we can now quantify the time constant of perisynaptic [Glu] decay (as an indicator of uptake) and the maximal [Glu] elevation next to the active zone (as an indicator of Glu release). The results provide a positive answer to the hitherto unresolved question of whether neurodegeneration (e.g., Huntington's disease) associates with a glutamate uptake deficit at tripartite excitatory synapses.
Keywords: EAAT2; Glu imaging; astrocytes; glutamate clearance; synapse pathology; tripartite synapse.
Copyright © 2019 the authors.