Cytotoxic Properties of Damiana (Turnera diffusa) Extracts and Constituents and A Validated Quantitative UHPLC-DAD Assay

Molecules. 2019 Feb 28;24(5):855. doi: 10.3390/molecules24050855.


In our continuing search for new cytotoxic agents, we assayed extracts, fractions, and pure compounds from damiana (Turnera diffusa) against multiple myeloma (NCI-H929, U266, and MM1S) cell lines. After a first liquid-liquid solvent extraction, the ethyl acetate layer of an acetone (70%) crude extract was identified as the most active fraction. Further separation of the active fraction led to the isolation of naringenin (1), three apigenin coumaroyl glucosides 24, and five flavone aglycones 59. Naringenin (1) and apigenin 7-O-(4″-O-p-E-coumaroyl)-glucoside (4) showed significant cytotoxic effects against the tested myeloma cell lines. Additionally, we established a validated ultra-high performance liquid chromatography diode array detector (UHPLC-DAD) method for the quantification of the isolated components in the herb and in traditional preparations of T. diffusa.

Keywords: flavonoids; multiple myeloma; naringenin; quality control; traditional preparation.

MeSH terms

  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic* / chemistry
  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic* / pharmacology
  • Cell Line, Tumor
  • Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid
  • Cytotoxins* / chemistry
  • Cytotoxins* / pharmacology
  • Humans
  • Multiple Myeloma / drug therapy*
  • Multiple Myeloma / metabolism
  • Multiple Myeloma / pathology
  • Plant Extracts* / chemistry
  • Plant Extracts* / pharmacology
  • Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization
  • Turnera / classification*


  • Antineoplastic Agents, Phytogenic
  • Cytotoxins
  • Plant Extracts