Dominant mutations at two loci, BicaudalC (BicC) and BicaudalD (BicD), cause heterozygous females to produce double-abdomen embryos. These mutations cause the production of embryos with a range of defects extending from the anterior end of the differentiated embryo. The same array of defective embryos is caused by mutations at either locus and is similar to that produced by the original mutation at bicaudal (bic). The array of defective embryos suggests that these mutations cause the loss of positional values from the anterior end of the embryo, associated with a duplication of the posterior end if too few positional values remain. BicaudalD mutations appear to be antimorphic, gain-of-function mutations, whereas BicaudalC mutations are likely to be hypomorphic or amorphic mutations. Mutations at all these loci (bic, BicC and BicD) act as mutual enhancers of each other, and a number of other maternal-effect mutations also act to either enhance or suppress the expression of these dominant bicaudal mutations.