Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA): Pathogenesis, Clinical Aspects and Treatment Approaches

Curr Rheumatol Rev. 2019;15(4):259-268. doi: 10.2174/1573397115666190227194014.


Giant Cell Arteritis (GCA), or Horton's Arteritis, is a chronic form of vasculitis of the large and medium vessels, especially involving the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in particular, the temporal artery, with the involvement of the axillary, femoral and iliac arteries too. Arterial wall inflammation leads to luminal occlusion and tissue ischemia, which is responsible for the clinical manifestations of the disease. A substantial number of patients affected by GCA present head and neck symptoms, including ocular, neurological and otorhinolaryngological manifestations. The aim of this article is to present pathogenesis, clinical aspects and treatment approaches of GCA manifestations.

Keywords: Autoimmune disease; ENT; GCA; audiovestibular abnormalities; hearing loss; polymyalgia rheumatica; vasculitis..

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones / therapeutic use
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / diagnosis*
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / drug therapy
  • Giant Cell Arteritis / etiology
  • Humans
  • Otorhinolaryngologic Diseases / etiology
  • Prognosis


  • Adrenal Cortex Hormones