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. 2019 Jun;165(6):1228-1233.
doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2019.01.008. Epub 2019 Mar 1.

Pretransplant Malignancy Among Lung Transplant Recipients in the Modern Era

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Pretransplant Malignancy Among Lung Transplant Recipients in the Modern Era

Sarah E Rudasill et al. Surgery. .

Abstract

Background: Malignancy is a relative contraindication in transplant candidates, given the increased neoplastic risk accompanying posttransplant immunosuppression. However, the number of patients receiving a lung transplant despite pretransplant malignancy is rising, and their outcomes remain unclear. Our purpose was to examine the outcomes of lung transplant recipients with pretransplant malignancy in the modern era.

Methods: We evaluated the United Network for Organ Sharing registry for adult lung transplants that were completed between June 2005 and September 2016. Transplant recipients were stratified by pretransplant malignancy, with subgroup analysis by sex and active malignancy. The primary outcome was 5-year survival and the secondary outcome was cause of death. Kaplan-Meier estimates illustrated 5-year survival and multivariable Cox proportional hazards regressions controlled for demographics and comorbidities.

Results: Of 18,032 transplant patients, 1,321 transplant recipients (7.3%) possessed a pretransplant malignancy. Patients with pretransplant malignancy faced significantly greater mortality within 5 years (36.0% vs 32.8%, P = .017), an effect greatest in men with pretransplant malignancy (39.2% vs 33.7%, P = .002). Patients with pretransplant malignancy also faced greater risk of death from posttransplant malignancy (15.6% vs 9.4%, P < .001), particularly for those with active malignancy at transplant (34.8% vs 9.8%, P < .001). Pretransplant malignancy remained a significant predictor of 5-year mortality in adjusted Cox regressions (hazard ratio: 1.16 [1.05-1.27], P = .003).

Conclusion: Patients with pretransplant malignancy, and particularly men with pretransplant malignancy and those with active malignancy at transplant, are at an increased risk of 5-year mortality and posttransplant death from malignancy. Balancing individual risk of posttransplant malignancy with immunosuppressive care is necessary to optimize outcomes for pretransplant malignancy patients.

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