The global prevalence of primary ovarian insufficiency and early menopause: a meta-analysis

Climacteric. 2019 Aug;22(4):403-411. doi: 10.1080/13697137.2019.1574738. Epub 2019 Mar 4.


Objective: The aim of this study was to estimate the global prevalence of primary ovarian insufficiency (POI) and early menopause (EM). Methods: A comprehensive literature search was performed in several databases to retrieve relevant English articles published between 1980 and 2017. To assess the methodological quality of the studies, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used. The heterogeneity of results across the studies was assessed using Cochran's Q test and quantified by the I2 statistic. Prevalence estimates of all studies were pooled using a random-effects meta-analysis model at a confidence level of 95%. Results: A total of 8937 potentially relevant articles were identified from the initial searches. Thirty-one studies met the inclusion criteria and were included in this meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of POI and EM was calculated as 3.7% (95% confidence interval: 3.1, 4.3) and 12.2% (95% confidence interval: 10.5, 14), respectively. The prevalence of POI was higher in medium and low Human Development Index countries. The prevalence trend did not change over time. Conclusion: The prevalence of POI and EM in women is considerable. The results of this study could contribute to consciousness-raising of health policy-makers toward the necessity of prioritizing, planning, and allocating health resources as preventive and treatment interventions for these women.

Keywords: Prevalence; early menopause; meta-analysis; primary ovarian insufficiency.

Publication types

  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Female
  • Global Health
  • Humans
  • Menopause, Premature*
  • Prevalence
  • Primary Ovarian Insufficiency / epidemiology*