The evidence of association between sexually transmitted infection and prostatic inflammation in human prostate cancer (PCa) is limited. Here, we sought to examine the potential association of prostatic infection with the inflammatory environment and prostate carcinogenesis. We screened surgical and biopsy specimens from 45 patients with PCa against a panel of sexually transmitted infection-related organisms using polymerase chain reaction and examined the severity of intraprostatic inflammation by pathologic examination. Among tested organisms, the rate of Mycoplasma genitalium (Mg) infection was significantly different between the prostate cancer cohort and benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) cohort (P = 0.03). Mg infection in the surgical specimens was associated with younger patients. The rate of extensive disease (pT2c⁻3b) was higher in Mg-positive patients than in Mg-negative patients (P = 0.027). No significant correlation was observed between Mg infection status and the grade of intraprostatic inflammation. The detection sensitivity of biopsy specimens was 61% for Mg and 60% for human papillomavirus (HPV)18, indicating possible clinical application of this material. A comprehensive understanding of the correlation between the urogenital microbiome and inflammation would facilitate the development of strategies for PCa prevention. Further studies are required to explore its clinical utility in recommendations of early re-biopsy, close follow-up, and treatment by antibiotics.
Keywords: Mycoplasma genitalium; human papillomavirus; inflammation; polymerase chain reaction; prostate cancer.