Background: With an increasing indication spectrum of antiresorptive drugs, the medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw secondary to bisphosphonate therapy [MRONJ (BP)] is continuously gaining clinical relevance. Impaired osteoclast function, accompanied by altered cell morphology and expression of osteoclastic effector proteins, contributes to the pathogenesis of MRONJ (BP). However, the underlying regulatory mechanisms at a transcriptional level are unaddressed so far. These mechanisms are crucial to the development of disease-characteristic osteoclastic anomalies, that contribute to the pathogenesis of MRONJ (BP). NFATc1 is considered a master upstream osteoclastic activator, whereas BCL6 acts as osteoclastic suppressor. The present study aimed to elucidate the NFATc1 and BCL6 mediated osteoclastic regulation and activity in MRONJ (BP) compared to osteoradionecrosis (ORN) and osteomyelitis (OM) and normal jaw bone.
Methods: Formalin-fixed jaw bone specimens from 70 patients [MRONJ (BP) n = 30; OM: n = 15, ORN: n = 15, control: n = 10] were analyzed retrospectively for osteoclast expression of NFATc1 and BCL6. The specimens were processed for H&E staining and immunohistochemistry. The histological sections were digitalized and analyzed by virtual microscopy.
Results: Osteoclastic expression of NFATc1 and BCL6 was significantly higher in MRONJ (BP) specimens compared to OM and control specimens. NFATc1 and BCL6 labeling indices revealed no significant differences between MRONJ (BP) and ORN. The ratio of nuclear BCL6+ osteoclasts to cytoplasmic BCL6+ osteoclasts revealed significantly higher values for MRONJ (BP) specimens compared to OM and controls.
Conclusion: This study displays that osteoclasts in MRONJ (BP) tissues feature increased expression of the higher-level regulators, paradoxically of both NFATc1 and BCL6. These observations can help to explain the genesis of morphologically altered and resorptive inactive osteoclasts in MRONJ (BP) tissues by outlining the transcriptional regulation of the pathomechanically relevant osteoclastic effector proteins. Furthermore, they strengthen the etiological delineation of MRONJ (BP) from OM and extend the osteoclast profiles of MRONJ (BP), OM and ORN and thus could lead to a better histopathological differentiation that can improve treatment decision and motivate new therapeutic concepts.
Keywords: BCL6; BRONJ; MRONJ; Medication related osteonecrosis of the jaw; NFATc1; ORN; Osteoclastic regulators; Osteoclasts; Osteomyelitis; Osteoradionecrosis.