Celastrol, a pentacyclic triterpene, is the most potent antiobesity agent that has been reported thus far1. The mechanism of celastrol's leptin-sensitizing and antiobesity effects has not yet been elucidated. In this study, we identified interleukin-1 receptor 1 (IL1R1) as a mediator of celastrol's action by using temporally resolved analysis of the hypothalamic transcriptome in celastrol-treated DIO, lean, and db/db mice. We demonstrate that IL1R1-deficient mice are completely resistant to the effects of celastrol in leptin sensitization and treatment of obesity, diabetes, and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis. Thus, we conclude that IL1R1 is a gatekeeper for celastrol's metabolic actions.