Background: The low fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol (FODMAP) diet causes significant clinical improvement in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Joint hypermobility syndrome (JHS), defined as musculoskeletal symptoms in a hypermobile individual in the absence of systemic rheumatological disease, may be associated with functional gastrointestinal symptoms, including IBS. The aim of this study is to examine whether JHS can affect the response to the low FODMAP diet in patients with IBS.
Methods: In this retrospective study, we included patients with IBS according to Rome III criteria who had followed a low FODMAP diet. Symptoms scores were measured before and after the low FODMAP diet.
Results: A total of 165 patients (130 females, age 44 ± 14 years) were included. Diarrhea predominant IBS (IBS-D) was present in 40.6% of our patients while JHS was present in 21.2%. The score for abdominal pain was higher for JHS compared to non-JHS prior to intervention (P = 0.011). Symptoms improved in both groups of patients after a low FODMAP diet (P < 0.0001). The largest effects were shown with significant decreases of the average score and bloating. When broken down by JHS and IBS type, a low FODMAP diet significantly improved pain, bloating, diarrhea, constipation, and the average score with the largest effect in JHS/constipation predominant IBS (IBS-C), JHS/mixed IBS and unclassified IBS (IBS-M), JHS/IBS-D, non-JHS/IBS-C and JHS/IBS-M, respectively.
Conclusions: Our study suggests that a low FODMAP diet has a greater effect on IBS symptoms in JHS than non-JHS patients.
Keywords: Bloating; FODMAP; Irritable bowel syndrome; Joint hypermobility syndrome; Pain.