Improving the reporting of cancer-specific mortality and survival in research using cancer registry data

Cancer Epidemiol. 2019 Apr;59:232-235. doi: 10.1016/j.canep.2019.02.004. Epub 2019 Mar 2.


Population-based registries are increasingly used in cancer research. In such studies, cancer-specific mortality or survival is frequently used as the primary outcome. To determine whether a putative cancer was part of the causal chain of events leading to death, cancer registries primarily rely on death certificates. Hence, they depend on the subjective interpretation of information available to medical examiners at the time of death. Misclassification may occur: studies report misclassification of cancer as a cause of death in 15%-35% of death certificates based on evaluation by expert panels and/or autopsy reports. Further misclassification may occur when coding death causes in the cancer registry. Researchers should be aware of potential misclassification bias when using cancer registry data. Differential misclassification may bias the results towards or away from the null hypothesis, depending on whether there is relative over- or under-reporting of cancer-related deaths in one group. Strategies to improve reporting of cancer-specific survival/mortality include (1) describing the procedure used to identify cancer-specific deaths; (2) considering the use of multiple definitions of cancer-related deaths (strict/liberal definitions of cancer-specific deaths, and/or addition of relative survival as an outcome); and (3) reporting cancer-specific survival/mortality together with the objectively measured parameters overall survival or all-cause mortality.

Keywords: All-cause mortality; Cancer registries; Cancer-specific mortality; Cancer-specific survival; Overall survival; US SEER database.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Bias
  • Cause of Death
  • Death Certificates
  • Humans
  • Neoplasms / diagnosis
  • Neoplasms / mortality*
  • Registries / standards*
  • Registries / statistics & numerical data
  • SEER Program
  • Survival Rate
  • United States / epidemiology