Accumulated data suggests that the gut microbiome can rapidly respond to changes in diet. Consumption of fermented dairy products (FDP) fortified with probiotic microbes may be associated with positive impact on human health. However, the extent and details of the possible impact of FDP consumption on gut community structure tends to vary across individuals. We used microbiome analysis to characterize changes in gut microbiota composition after 30 days of oral intake of a yoghurt fortified with Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis BB-12. 16S rRNA gene sequencing was used to assess the gut microbial composition before and after FDP consumption in healthy adults (n = 150). Paired comparison of gut microbial content demonstrated an increase in presence of potentially beneficial bacteria, particularly, Bifidobacterium genus, as well as Adlercreutzia equolifaciens and Slackia isoflavoniconvertens. At a functional level, an increased capacity to metabolize lactose and synthesize amino acids was observed accompanied by a lowered potential for synthesis of lipopolysaccharides. Cluster analysis revealed that study volunteers segregated into two groups with post-intervention microbiota response that was dependent on the baseline microbial community structure.
Keywords: clinical trial; fermented dairy products; gut microbiota; probiotics; responders.